无标题文档

A Marxist View on Education: Education and Capability Development

  发布时间:2019-12-26 10:27:41

来源:2019年11月27日讲座  作者:BARBARA SCHULTE

 

一、A Marxist departure: standpoint theory & capability development

(一)A Marxist departure

1.‘Understanding’ according to Marx

·Hegel: ‘object of knowledge’ distinct from ‘object of reality’

·Subject of cognition (e.g. you or me) are active agents and actively shapes object of knowledge

·Importance of context (history) and position (class)

·Understanding is partial – as long as we don’t remake the world

Standpoint theory: Male, female, ‘Western’, non- Western, middle-class, human

2.Regaining control over reality

False reality creates estrangement: “Estrangement appears not only in the fact that the means of my life belong to another and that my desire is the inaccessible possession of another, but also in the fact that all things are other than themselves, that my activity is other than itself, and that finally ...an inhuman power rules over everything.”

·Not our cognition the problem, but false reality– which needs to be changed to regain control!

Standpoint theory Change: Transforming objects of cognition so that they ‘fit’ us human beings

3.Whose standpoint is to be privileged?

·range of options open to people

·resources available

·inaccessible resources (though physically present)

·costs of gaining access to resources

·but also: knowledge of these resources in the first place

4.Knowledge + action/positive change: capability!

"Capability reflects a person's freedom to choose between different ways of living. The underlying motivation – the focusing on freedom – is well captured by Marx's claim that what we need is 'replacing the domination of circumstances and chance over individuals by the domination of individuals over chance and circumstances'." (Sen 2003)

5.Capability development

(1) raising awareness of: options that are available; options that are desirable; strategies to attain these options

(2) Capability is situated between subjectively experienced needs & objectively identifiable conditions

(3) Focus on functions: e.g. working, resting, being literate, being healthy, being part of a community, being respected etc.

二、 Capability & education = a question of inclusion?

(一) Often, main concerns relate to:

1. Quantitative indicators: Enough schools, teachers, enrolment etc.? Learning outcomes (tests)?

2. Technical solutions: Infrastructure, books, computers etc.?

3. Economic growth through education: Labor market? Individual employment?

4. National unity: Loyal citizens? Patriotic citizens?

What about? Community needs & hopes? Families’ perspectives? Individual freedoms to make a choice?

(二)Capability in & through education

To achieve these functions through social context include: resources (financial, nonfinancial); capability(access to school, acquiring skills ,ability to transform knowledge into functions); choice

1.Forms of exclusion/inclusion

Social inclusion/exclusion a consequence of institutional processes, group dynamics & social practices (Kabeer 2000);Do institutional structures strengthen social exclusion? Or do they tolerate it? Or do they have mechanisms that can prevent exclusion? E.g. exam system/progression (中考,高考,升学,补习), school catchment areas (户口);Do group mechanisms & social values facilitate or hinder divisions (in-groups/out-groups)? E.g. social/ethnic solidarity (社会阶级,少数民族), meeting spaces for diverse groups (公民)

2.Social inclusion vs. exclusion

seldom either-or; but for example; privileged inclusion (e.g. elite/key schools); secondary inclusion (e.g. vocational schools); negative inclusion (‘adverse incorporation’)/problematic inclusion (e.g. grudgingly admitting migrant children); self-exclusion (e.g. opting out of public schools); hard exclusion (e.g. denying access)

3.Exclusion/inclusion

Three levels: Policy: normalization(e.g. how does educational policy create ‘normal’, ‘ideal’ educational careers? ); School routines: translation of policies into rules &  procedures,(e.g. strong and weak school classes, integration (or marginalization) of minority culture, the ‘ideal pupil’); Classroom dynamics: interaction between teacher & students (and between students) (e.g. labeling students (‘at risk’), mobbing, discrimination, disrespect)

三、How can we develop through education?

(一)Education and fragility: five risk areas

1. Governance

Domain of fragility: governance: Inequality in resource allocation; lack of political will to foster inclusion and tackle marginalization; lack of trust in government; corruption; problems of capacity

A. Education reinforcing or making no difference: Unfair system (or perception thereof); divides (urban/rural, rich/poor); bribes & illicit fees to schools/teachers; bureaucracy preventing efficiency; donors: causing inefficiency, lack of government ownership

B. Education building citizen resilience, protection & survival within insufficient state:  increased access to education, abolition of fees; resistance to political manipulation

C. Education making small inroads into nation-building & state adaptability: community self-reliance & confidence civil engagement, parent/teacher associations; widening access leads to perception of national unity; capacity development; national education planning, transparency, trust; voter education

2. Security

Domain of fragility: security: Crime, lawlessness, violent conflict linked to religion or ethnicity; militias; struggles over land & resources ? International or regional drivers of conflict

A. Education reinforcing or making no difference: manipulation of schools; schools used as sites of contestation; school segmentation & segregation; politicization of identity; militarized curriculum; failed integration attempts

B. Education building citizen resilience, protection & survival within insufficient state: resistance to recruitment into armed combat; secular education for returnees & IDPs, avoiding local religious tensions

C. Education making small inroads into nation-building & state adaptability: building national identity/national pride; fully integrated education; public awareness campaigns, adult education helping against political manipulation.

3. Economy

Domain of fragility: economy: youth bulge, frustration; unemployment; static or declining national growth

A. Education reinforcing or making no difference: Education unable to provide livelihoods

 because of job market; failed TVET projects creating false expectations; perceived irrelevance of schooling; limited access to schools, excluding people from economic opportunities

B. Education building citizen resilience, protection & survival within insufficient state: relevant literacy for job acquisition &entrepreneurship; skills for livelihoods in existing markets; accelerated learning programs for potential employment

C. Education making small inroads intonation-building & state adaptability: mass literacy; technological education to enable competition in international markets

4. Cultures of power

Domain of fragility: cultures of power: patronage, gender inequality, violence, fear; cultures of passivity; lack of freedom of speech

A. Education reinforcing or making no difference: violence in schools; corporal punishment; biased curriculum; gender divisions seen as normal; human rights education seen as Western imposition; caste systems,

B. Education building citizen resilience: national code of conduct for teachers; child-friendly schools teaching equity, self-esteem and rights; working within patron-client cultures to reduce impact

C. Education making small inroads into nation-building & state adaptability: tackling gender-based & other cultures of violence; political/civic education to learn advocacy & break cycles of acceptance; youth parliaments

5. Environmental degradation

Domain of fragility: environmental degradation: affecting the poor disproportionally

A. Education reinforcing or making no difference: education failing to teach about

environment & environmental dangers; failure to provide the poor with skills to claim compensation from industrial & other disasters

B. Education building citizen resilience, protection & survival within insufficient state: safe/sanitary school; health education; disaster-preparedness; giving land & seed to teachers to compensate for low salaries

C. Education making small inroads into nation-building & state adaptability: (hitherto unwillingness to make real changes)

 

References:

[1]Davies, L. 2011. Can education interrupt fragility? Toward the resilient citizen and the adaptable state. In Educating children in conflict zones. Research, policy, and practice for systemic change - a tribute to Jackie Kirk, ed. by K. Mundy & S. Dryden-Peterson. New York and London: Teachers College Press. 33-48.

[2]Kabeer, Naila. 2000. Social Exclusion, Poverty and Discrimination: Towards an Analytical Framework. IDS Bulletin 31, no. 4.

[3]McGrath, S. 2010. The Role of Education in Development: An Educationalist’s Response to Some Recent Work in Development Economics. Comparative Education 46, 2: 237- 253.

[4]McGrath, S. 2014. The Post-2015 Debate and the Place of Education in Development Thinking. International Journal of Education Development 39:4-11.

[5]Sen, A. 2003. Development as Capability Expansion. In: S. Fukuda-Parr and S. Kumar (eds). Readings in Human Development: Concepts, Measures, and Policies for a Development Paradigm. Oxford University Press, New Delhi and New York. 41-58.

[6]Stoler, A. L., & Cooper, F. (1997). Between Metropole and Colony: Rethinking a Research Agenda. In F. Cooper & A. L. Stoler (Eds.), Tensions of Empire. Colonial Cultures in a Bourgeois World (pp. 1-56). Berkeley: University of California Press.

[7]Tarabini, A. 2010. Education and Poverty in the Global Development Agenda: Emergence, Evolution and Consolidation. International Journal of Educational Development 30, 2: 204-212.

[8]Tarabini, Aina, Judith Jacovkis, and Alejandro Montes. 2018. Factors in Educational Exclusion: Including the Voice of the Youth. Journal of Youth Studies 21(6): 836–51.

[9]Tschurenev, J. .2011. Incorporation and Differentiation: Popular Education and the Imperial Civilizing Mission in the Early Nineteenth Century India. In: C. A. Watt and M. Mann (eds) Civilizing Missions in Colonial and Postcolonial South Asia: From Improvement to Development. Anthem Press, London & New York. 93-124.

 

责任编辑:黄丽芬,李睿,王雪婷